Speaking of public transportation, be careful when using the plural “subways.”
Don’t use “There are lots of subways in my city” or “Lots of people take subways in my city.”
There is only one “subway” in your city. That refers to the whole network of trains and tunnels and stations. It is generally referred to as “the subway.” So you should say:
“Lots of people take the subway in my city.”
To express the same thought as “there are lots of subways in my city” you should use something like:
“There are lots of subway lines in my city.”
Or in a more natural way:
“The subway runs very frequently in my city.”
The plural “subways” is used mostly to talk about multiple subway systems. As in:
“There are many dirty subways in America.”
That means there are many dirty subway systems in cities across America.
I see this error a lot in TOEFL essays as they often require students to write examples about their everyday life and how they get around. A classic error is something like:
“There are a lot of busses and subways for people in my city.”
This is annoying to fix because it requires something like:
“There are a lot of busses and a great subway system for people in my city.”
“There are a lot of busses and subway lines for people in my city.”
In case you are wondering, the compartment you sit in on the subway is called a “subway car” and the whole bunch of cars plus the place where the driver sits is called a “subway train.” I have probably never spoken the words “subway train” out loud in my life.
There ya go. A ton of writing about a simple error. Life is suffering.
Don’t even get me started on “I am on a bus” vs “I am on the bus.”
ETS has just published a searchable list of universities which accept the TOEFL Home Edition. You can find it on their site. Currently, the site lists 394 schools. Actually, I think the list sort of under-represents the popularity of the test, since it just lists schools which mention it on their website (or elsewhere). Many more schools accept it, but haven’t specifically announced that they do.
Hey, the TOEFL home edition is now permanent. Well, in their advertising ETS uses the phrase “here to stay.” The website says that it will be available “for the foreseeable future.” See below.
Update: here is the e-mail sent to institutions that use the scores:
In response to the needs expressed by institutions and test takers, ETS is pleased to announce that the at home TOEFL iBT® test and GRE® General Test are here to stay and will become a continuing part of each brand’s product portfolios. The TOEFL iBT Special Home Edition will also get an updated name: TOEFL iBT Home Edition. At home testing appointments are currently available around the clock for both tests through the end of January, and future appointments will be available soon.
7 months ago, we proudly announced that we had quickly introduced a solution for students who had been impacted by COVID-19 to take the TOEFL iBT test and the GRE General Test at home until in-person testing could resume. The tests have the exact same content, format, on-screen experience and scoring as the tests given in a test center. And thanks to artificial intelligence and remote proctoring, institutions can feel assured that the tests are administered securely and that the scores are reliable.
Since launching the at home tests in March, we at ETS have learned a lot, and have been making continuous improvements to the products and experience. Early on, the tests were only available on PCs, but we quickly expanded that to include Mac® computers. We worked diligently to increase accessibility for people with disabilities and health-related needs. We increased test taker convenience by increasing testing capacity and reducing the registration deadline. We also addressed test takers’ needs to better understand the new delivery method and registration process by posting videos, developing registration checklists and hosting Facebook® Live events. And, as test centers began reopening around the world, we informed test takers that the decision to test at home or in a test center was theirs to make.
More than 400,000 individuals have registered to take the at home tests for the TOEFL iBT test and GRE General Test in 163 countries and territories since March. We have learned through surveys that many test takers prefer to test at home, and now they can choose whether testing at home or in a center will work best for them. As we move forward, we will continue to make further improvements in service to you and your prospective students.
Thank you for your continued partnership and support of ETS’s high-quality assessment solutions; your trust means the world to us. Should you wish to direct students to learn more, please suggest they visit the websites for TOEFL test takers and GRE test takers. For updates intended for institutions, visit the TOEFL and GRE pages created for you. And should you need ETS’s support during this time, or have any questions, please don’t hesitate to reach out to us at TOEFLnews@ets.org or
There are a few good TOEFL books. There are a lot of bad ones. I hope that this article helps you pick the best TOEFL books. I’ll update and revise this list throughout the year as new books are released. At the end you can find a list of stuff I don’t like, and a list of stuff that will be published in the future.
Last Updated: October 31, 2020
Best Overview of the Test
The Official Guide to the TOEFL (6th Edition) is the best overview of the test. I’ve been teaching for a decade and I still open it up now and then to look up some specific detail. Needless to say, it will teach you about all four sections of the test and the different types of questions each section contains. It is also illustrated with plenty of examples. But note that is also contains a few errors and inaccurate sample questions (particular in the chapter on integrated writing and the first practice test). Note that the 6th edition matches the new version of the TOEFL that started in 2019. For more details, check out my complete review.
Other Books Updated to Match the New TOEFL
Barron’s TOEFL iBT (17th Edition) was published on April 7, 2020. This is the first edition that matches the new version of the test. This is by far the best book not from ETS this year. However, it still has some issues so make sure to read my full review of the book before you use it. In short, it has fairly good reading and listening content, decent writing content, and weak speaking content. It also has a huge amount of practice questions. Audio content and practice tests are provided online (not on CD). For what it’s worth, a Superpack featuring this book (and a couple others) is also available.
Princeton Review’s TOEFL iBT Prep is the second best book this year. However, it has a lot of problems. The most obvious are in the chapters about the reading and speaking sections. You can read about all of them in my full review of the book. There is only one complete sample test (which can only be done on paper as there is no test software included), but there are additional practice questions throughout the book. The only part of this book I really recommend is the collection of skill building exercises found at the beginning. Note that this book used to be called “Cracking the TOEFL.” That was a stupid name.
If you don’t want to buy a physical book, the TOEFL Emergency Course from TST Prep is the best overview of the test that is actually updated for the new version. Just note that it is an online course, not an actual book. It includes a 12 page overview of the test provided via PDF, some sample questions and strategies. If you just want the overview, choose the “basic” version since it is cheapest. And if you use the coupon code “goodine10off” you can get a 10% discount.
Best Books for Practice Tests
The two Official TOEFL iBT Tests books are still the best source of practice tests. Each contains five complete practice tests. They are the closest you will get to the real test, since they are made by ETS. The books also reflect the new version of the test that began in 2019. There are two books you can get – Volume 1 (4th edition) and Volume 2 (3rd Edition) . Each book contains an access code to download software that simulates the official test. If you want to know more about these two books, check out my review.
If you want some more practice tests, I recommend the ten test pack from TST Prep. These are the most accurate practice tests you will get from an unofficial source. They also include all of the modern independent writing prompt styles, so in some ways they are even better than the official materials. The price is pretty good, and if you use the coupon code “goodine10off” you will probably get a 10% discount. Note that these are provided online, and not in an actual book.
Best Book for TOEFL Reading
I recommend Kathy Spratt’s “Mastering the Reading Section for the TOEFL,” which is in its third edition. It is available only as an Amazon ebook, but remember that you don’t need a special device to read ebooks. You can just access them in your web browser if necessary.
Best “Book” for TOEFL Listening
There really aren’t any good TOEFL listening books. If you want some decent content, though, I recommend signing up at Magoosh TOEFL. They have some good reading and listening stuff, but note that their writing and speaking content is quite bad. You can also read my full review of Magoosh.
Best Book for TOEFL Speaking
I still really love “TOEFL Listening and Speaking Skills ” from Collins Cobuild. It is sort of old (it was published in 2012) but it still has the most accurate speaking sample questions of any printed textbook not from ETS. It also comes with some decent templates and very concise strategies to use on the test. And, heck, you get some listening stuff too. Audio files are provided online (though the company also sells a version with a CD). Note that the book has not been updated to match the most recent changes to the test, so you will just have to ignore the sections on speaking questions 1 and 5. That said, Collins has hinted (on Twitter) that this book will be updated in 2020 so just keep an eye out for a newer version.
Best Book for TOEFL Writing
Collins again! I really like their “TOEFL Reading and Writing Skills.” This book has really accurate question samples. Even the integrated questions, which almost everyone messes up. It also includes some decent templates and concise strategies. It isn’t bogged down with “information overload” like the Kaplan book mentioned above. The independent writing prompts are a bit weaker, though, as they don’t include all of the modern styles.
Best Books for Vocabulary
I don’t usually recommend TOEFL vocabulary books. I’m not entirely sure that studying vocabulary lists is totally helpful, as the odds that the words you study will actually show up on the test are somewhat low. Not only that, but the new TOEFL introduced in 2019 has fewer vocabulary questions in the reading section. That said, you have a few options.
First up, “Essential Words for the TOEFL” from Barron’s is pretty good. I like the difficulty level of the words, and I like that it includes some realistic vocabulary questions as well.
An equally good book is McGraw Hill’s 400 Essential Words for the TOEFL. It includes helpful vocabulary, and has accurate practice reading questions of all types. That’s neat.
Meanwhile, if you just want a whole bunch of words for a really low price (2 bucks) I recommend Darakwon’s “1800 TOEFL Essential Vocabulary.” It’s an ebook.
Best Books for Grammar
I don’t recommend any “TOEFL Grammar” books. For now, I just suggest my students get the 5th edition of “English Grammar in Use” from Cambridge University press. This book has been around forever, and it is still the best source of grammar explanations and practice questions. After getting a copy, you can check out my list of recommended units to study. if you want even more content, Cambridge sells a supplementary book with more practice questions! For lower level students (writing scores below 20), I recommend getting something a bit easier like “Basic Grammar in Use.”
Upcoming TOEFL Books
A new edition of “TOEFL iBT Prep” from Princeton Review will be published in February 2021.
Hey, it’s time for another installment of “You Should Read More!” This blog series encourages you to increase your TOEFL reading score by reading more stuff. By reading stuff, you can develop your reading skills. The theme here is “comprehension before strategies.”
But not only does reading stuff develop your skills, it also increases your ability to concentrate on dense academic content like what appears on the TOEFL. Personally, I find that unless I force myself to read academic content on a regular basis my mind starts to wander when I am faced with a challenging text. The problem isn’t that I don’t understand the text, but rather that I can’t focus on it.
This month I read the September issue of National Geographic. I love this magazine. Every month I get a ton of great articles, and the cost of subscribing is pretty low. Right now it’s just $19 per year in the USA, and $59 per year worldwide. Or you can just read most of the articles for free online. This month there is a great story about ostrich behavior that I really enjoyed. And it goes without saying that ETS loves to write questions about animal behavior.
This month I also read two issues of Analog Science Fiction. Now, you’re probably rolling your eyes at me now… but hear me out! The issues contained the first two parts of a serialized novel called “House of Styx.” The novel is about colonists on Venus who live in a station sort of like the “station… floating in Venus’s atmosphere, like a balloon, rather than standing on its surface” described in the integrated writing question of TPO 40! The science here is well done, and the characters are sympathetic. If you are interested, don’t waste your time trying to get the magazines pictured here – just get the Kindle version from Amazon.
Next, I’m going to send you to an actual TOEFL book. I reviewed Pamela Sharpe’s “TOEFL Practice Exercises” last week and observed that the book has somewhat inaccurate questions. But it does have thirty-four reading passages about topics that commonly appear on the TOEFL. They are also at the same difficulty level and are of the same length as what you’ll get on the test. You’ll never find another collection like it. And you can treat the inaccurate questions as a sort of “skill building” thing that forces you to concentrate a bit more than you really want to. I know I am really mean when I write about TOEFL books, but I do want to stress that I appreciate the effort made by their authors. I could never write such a monumental collection of content. So check it out.
Finally, the late-August issue of “Science News” has an article about a certain beetle that gets eaten by frogs but is still alive after it gets pooped out. Wild. Fortunately you can read that article online. Meanwhile, if you want something closer to what you will find on the TOEFL, the issue also has an article about how smallpox affected Vikings more than 1000 years ago.
What stood out to me is that this was the first time I’ve seen anyone from ETS utter the words “Duolingo English Test”. And the article didn’t pull any punches:
“Despite having “academic” in their name, these tests have only partial academic English content (50% or lower). The most recent entrant, the Duolingo® English Test, is effectively a test of rudimentary English knowledge and does not even adequately measure English proficiency, let alone the ability of a student to communicate and succeed in a university setting.”
Honestly, though, it must be a bit frustrating for ETS. The TOEFL is backed by a book-length account of its validity, while the validity case for the DET seems to consist of a few short articles. Despite that, though, the DET has become very popular since the beginning of the year.
I am a fan of the DET, and you can find a supportive comment I made back in March of 2019 on YouTube. But, to be honest, I think a lot of universities are rushing headfirst to support a test that might not be ready for high-stakes admissions.
I should begin by mentioning that while Barron’s forgot to mention the website where audio files for this book can be downloaded. That’s a pretty major problem, since they are not easy to find on Google or via the Barron’s website. If you are still looking for those, check this page.
Overall, I don’t recommend this edition of TOEFL Practice Exercises. That’s a shame because it looks like the book has been extensively revised since the previous edition. The questions here just aren’t accurate enough. There was a time when books with “good enough” TOEFL questions were acceptable, but now there is a wealth of research online about how questions are designed by ETS. Heck, just reading all of the Chinese TPOs will give any author a good idea of how to design questions.
A few issues stand out:
Reading passages contain a ton of questions that require students to scour the whole passage to find the answer. On the actual test students are told which paragraph contains the answer to the question. The only exceptions are the summary and table questions at the end of the passage. Certain reading passages in the book might contain four or five questions where the paragraph isn’t indicated.
Many of the “campus announcement” speaking questions include only one speaker in the listening part. This is never done on the real test. Meanwhile, the reading parts don’t always give specific reasons for the stated changes. They are merely descriptive.
Most of the integrated writing questions lack the requisite number of paragraphs in the reading. Specifically, they lack separate introductory paragraphs. A few of them lack the requisite number of body paragraphs.
It is worth mentioning that this book has an absolute ton of good academic reading and listening practice. Just pages and pages of practice material that is both interesting and at the exact level that students need when preparing for the TOEFL. Not only that, but the inaccurate questions are still wonderful for skill-building. This means that it can still be a key part of a student’s preparation for the TOEFL… as long as they are reminded of how it differs from the actual test experience.
Okay. One last bit of free customer support for ETS. Students often ask me how long it takes for score recipients to get their TOEFL scores. The answer is that it takes eleven days for recipients to get the scores. You can find this information buried deep in the TOEFL Bulletin for 2020. Here ya go:
“Official score reports will be sent to your designated recipients within 11 days after your test – or sooner, depending on what score delivery method each specific institution uses.”
The scores are sent electronically, so this means the institutions should have them eleven days after you take the test. ETS does not provide confirmation that the scores have been properly received, but you can call the admissions department of your school to confirm if necessary.
Of course if you have chosen paper score reports this could take a lot longer. ETS says:
However, if we mail the score report, keep in mind that ETS has no control over mail delivery to various locations around the world. Allow another 7-10 days for mail delivery in the U.S., and 4-6 weeks for mail delivery to other locations. For information specific to your postal system, contact your post office for an estimated arrival time for mail from the U.S.
How Long Until Scores Appear in your ETS Account?
In case you are wondering, scores appear in your ETS account after six days (if you take the test at the test center) or ten days (if you take the Special Home Edition). The PDF score report can be downloaded two days after that.
I am often asked by students taking the TOEFL Home Edition about the “Exam ID” and password screen on the “ETS Unify Test Launcher.”
Here’s the screen:
But don’t worry. This information is entered by the proctor when the test starts. The test-taker does not enter it!
Seriously, though, if I get asked about this three times a week, ETS must get asked about it three thousand times per week. They really ought to put some text on the screen that tells students what to do.